A young refugee contemplates the southern part of Farchana's camp from a hill that cut the refugee's site in two. His week follow a sudanese pace. School from sunday to thursday, friday and saturday being the week-end. Farchana camp sheltered 22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011. It was opened in january 2004 and is located 56 kilometer from the sudanese border, 120 kilometer east from Abeche, the main city in Eastern Chad.
 Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. Following water collection, some refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. There are fifteen wells in Djabal. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. There are fifteen wells in Djabal. Following water collection, the refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. 62% of the camp's population are women while 60% are under 18 years old. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the courtyard of the family's compound, a refugee is resting, listening to the radio. It is market day in Goz Beida, the big chadian city located 4 kilometers away from the camp of Djabal which sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. Many people went there. The camp is day sleeping.
 A women carries her niece to the health center of the camp because of a foot swollen with pus. Days ago, the girl walked on a thorn during wood collection. Neither the mother or the grand mother who are living with her brought her there, afraid of having to stay there for a long time, thus not being able to carry on their daily activities. The child crying and yelling while the grand mother was trying to burst the abscess attract the attention of a neighbouring aunt. Exasperated by the stubbornness of the parents not decided to carry the child to the hospital, she took her on her shoulders.     
 In a street of Djabal camp, a refugee is riding around on his horse, his most precious belonging. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. The minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa. 
 Gymnastic course on the playground  before the Ali Dinnar primary school. The teacher in white djallabia (tunic) watches the pupils lined up in a big circle, passing the ball one to each other. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
 Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.
 Morning lesson, in Ali Dinnar primary school. Class are mixed, but boys and girls sit in different rows. The curriculum is the sudanese one. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.      
 Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
 During the morning break, some of the 19 school teachers are relaxing in the courtyard of Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. There are not numerous enough buildings. 11 classes for 7 classrooms. No teachers room aswell. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.   
 106 female students, during a Literature class, Grade 8 (from 14 to 16 years old), in Oure Cassoni. In secondary school, the classes are not mixed. No desks, no chairs. Everyone is sitting on mates.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The class is over in Ali Dinnar primary school. To avoid any robbery, pupils carry a blackboard to the school store which has an iron door that can be locked. The curriculum in darfurian refugees schools is the same than in Sudan. 690 pupils attend Ali Dinnar school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. First degree primary class are held outside, under trees. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Few hundred meters from Djabal's camp is located the refugees' cemetery. The graves can hardly be seen. Two gravestones mark their position. One for the head, one for the feet. With time, only remain a tiny ballast while vegetation irreparably regain ground.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Following the deceased of the spouse of a fellow refugee, friends and relatives gather in a mosk to pray.
 Refugees collect non food items NFI (soap and a piece of material) given by an ngo.   Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees, 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 66 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
 A women passes along the wall of a family plot in Oure Cassoni refugees' camp, the futher north. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa who composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. A Zaghawa compound is constructed like a maze, with walls and turns blocking the view from one part of the house to another. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The filling station situated in the camp on the verge of the market. The petrol comes all the way from Abeche, 361 kms from there, on sandy and bumpy tracks. Uneasy to know if the sellers are sudanese refugees or chadian citizens... Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People come from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In Oure Cassoni camp, a French language price winner in a school examination waits to get her diploma and a gift during the awards ceremony. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In the market of Oure Cassoni, few kilometers from Darfur, a shop keeper and his children close their shop to go to the mosk for the Friday prayer. Despite being in Chad, the currency used in the market is sudanese pound and not CFA Francs although the CFA notes may be accepted. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Abakar Adam Israel, a tailor whose shop is located on the main street of Djabal camp. "I arrived here with the first bunch of people. Considering all the problem in Darfur, I came to Chad looking for safety. I was a tailor in Sudan aswell but it is only since 4 years that I am a tailor here. A brother who was working in Libya sent me the money to buy my shop. Before, I was living and working in Maji Maje, between Bayda and Gongo, in Darfur. Because of the war, I came with my wife an my six children. Sometimes I make 1 000 CFA (2.11 $), somtimes 500 CFA (1,05$). My wife and children have a field located more than 5 hours walk from the camp. There is a hut there. During rain season, they sleep overthere. In Chad, I manage to make a leaving thanks to the field and my work. I hpe to go back to Sudan as soon as possible, as long as security is garanteed. I remember perfectly the day I arrive. It was 27 july 2003. We came from many villages. When I go back to Darfur, I forget and forgive because I will be at home. Here I remeber any event. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Ahmed Mahamat Khamis, 8 years old on his way back home from the grocery where he bartered millet for sugar and oignons. He carries in a bucket a bag of sugar, some oignons (in plastic pocket) and the "change": some millet. The barter economy is common practice in the camps. One brings a product to the grocery to get what he lacks (sugar, oignon, soap,...) A koro of mill (measure of a big bowl) is equivalent to 400 CFA (0.85 USD) while a small mould is equivalent to 150 CFA (0.32 USD). Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the market of Gaga camp, a refugee passes by a clothes shop.  Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011). The camp located 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2005.
 An assistant of Ahbab Moustapha, one out of the ten bakers of Djabal camp, takes out of the brick oven covered with clay, one of the last bake of the day while two others prepare the bread. They start there day work at 1.30 a.m and finish around 8.30 a.m., everyday. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 A baker in Oure Cassoni sits nearby his oven after having completed the last bake of the day. His work site is situated on the verge of the market. Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People comes from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In search of a good deal, a female refugee enters the tents where groups of women are selling the products they manufacture to get extra money.  The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp Oure Cassoni belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Daoud Abderassoul, one of the three Umda (traditionnal leader) of Djabal's camp in his compound home. Before the camp was established in june 2004, some refugees came for a reconnaissance visit on the site . They went back to the border to reassure their fellows refugees. Since they have been choosen by the community to be the leaders. He has two wifes, 10 children and two donkeys. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset time in Djabal's camp. While adults are coming back from their distant fields, teenagers are playing football before total darkness. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a corner of a playground, in Djabal camp, a young refugee carries rubbish to a garbage dump that has been digged. All day long, refugees bring their waste in bucket or wheelbarrow and get rid of them in the hole. In the evening, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and stay nearby to avoid any propagation.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Daoud Abderassoul, an Umda (a traditionnal leader) of the refugees leads the maghrib  (sunset prayer) in a mosk in the camp, a delimited compound. The worshipers are praying on mats under a tree. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In Djabal, refugees watch TV in a television playground create and run by the three Umda (traditionnal leaders) on the camp. In the evening, people come to watch programs: sports, songs, movies, news...  There are 5 televisions set to offer a choice as wide as possible. On the first screen, news are displayed (bbc, aljazzera, télétchad, sudanese TV), on the second actions movies, cartoons, on the third songs, entertainment from Sudan, Nigeria, Eritrea,... on the fourth sports, and on the last one football only. People pay 50 CFA (0.11 USD) for the whole evening. The project is run like an association. The money pays for diesel, engine maintenance... There are approximately 15 places to pay and watch TV in the camp, « but they ask 100 CFA (0.22 USD) », says an Umda.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a street of the Djabal camp, a woman and her son watch an heap of garbages burning. All day long, refugees get rid of their waste in a hole. When evening comes, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and wathc over to avoid any propagation of fire. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 7.30 a.m. in the vicinity of Oure Cassoni camp. A couple of sheperds are pushing a herd of sheeps to go to a wadi (dry river), several kilometers from there, where water and grass are still available even during dry season. To be able to go on with their activities, tens of refugees gather their animals to organize one big herd that few refugees lead and guard. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In the main bussiness street of Djabal where the vast majority of shops are built, a refugee mason builds a shop and a store for a client both farmer and bussinessman. In the store, the farmer will store his harvest of millet and groundnut to avoid it to be destroy in case of fire. Indeed, many refugee farmers use staw and wood granary. The construction costs to the owner 350 000 to 400 000 CFA (740 to 846 USD). He tooks a credit to pay the building. This investment shows how much the refugies think they will last in Chad. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the family compound, in Djabal camp, an old refugee carrying her grand-son on her back is preparing the traditionnal sorghum bier. After having soak the red millet to get a dough, she dries and smashes it on a white canvas. Looking for cash money, the refugies increase income activities. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Hawa Ahmat Abakar, a 18 years old pregnant woman waits for her first child. She is the second wife of her husband. The first lives in the neighbourhood in a different compound. She arrived in Djabal camp with the first convoy, in 2003. "Although I am sudanese, my child born in Chad will be a chadian with sudanese origin. I do not have any field. Concerning my future, the only thing I can say is that I am living here. I was living in Dangajoura, in the region of Beida, in Darfur. I was feeling so well there. I never came back. The people who chase us away are still there and can still hurt us. My father is still in Darfur while my mother is living next door.  Sometimes he come to visit us. We left the mangos trees to the arabs. They stole also our cattle and burnt the rest. When I see some arabs in Chad, that's remind me of the past and painful events..." Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In Nour Al Islam coranic school, one of the madrassa of Djabal refugees' camp, the marabout, Juma Ibrahim Abdallah, chants verses that he reads from the small wooden board (alluha) where pupils write down sura, using black ink and a wooden pen (calam). 88 children from the area attend the madrassa, in mixed session (boys and girls). For Juma Ibrahim Abdallah: "These children are like my own children."   Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.   
 In Oure Cassoni camp, a group of majorette sings and dances.  The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The class is over in the secondary school. Students are getting out of the class and tyding their shech (long scarf curling up the head) up, because of the cold and strong wind that sweeps across the camp. The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 A woman prepares tea, in her kitchen, a separate hut in the family compound. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset in a street of Djabal camp. A young boy goes back home carrying home bamboos to make seko wall in his family compound. A seko is a makeshift wall (like the one behind him) that usually marked the boundary of an household compound. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sitting under the shade of a tree, in his compound, a refugee makes straw panel used for roof. He sell it for 2000 CFA (4.18 USD). "Two days are necessary to make a panel. One day to collect the straw out of the bush and one day to make it." Looking for cash money, the refugies do income activities.   Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.   
 In Treguine Health Center, a mid-wife is ausculting a pregnant refugee. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 In the delivery room of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, Magon, a male nurse, helps a 30 years old mother to deliver her seventh child. The previous one is born two years ago. Since early morning, the nurse assisted 5 deliveries. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100 per week. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a ward of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, a young mother who delivered fews hours ago breast feeds her child. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Treguine Health Center. First step of the monitoring process to determine the medical status of a child and particularly his growth, accurate criteria to monitor malnutrition, medical assistants measure a young refugee.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 In a foyer, men, most of them old and vulnerable (some almost blind) unravel bags bought in the market to get fibers in order to make ropes. Sold it provide extra cash for their families.  Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in mai 2005.
 Children play at a playground equiped with some iron swings and frames. Farchana camp  (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), located 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 1020 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. In the WFP food reserve shed in Treguine camp, working in a dusty cloud, singing in rythm to keep the pace, local WFP staff carry bags of wheat to donkeys carts. The carts will bring the bags to the distribution point few hundreds meters aways.    Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. A local staff from Chadian Red Cross is distributing wheat to a refugee. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. In fact, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. For instance, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month. A young refugee perched on wheat bags collected for several families of the same area, goes back home in a donkey cart. The carts are rented for vulnerable refugees by UNHCR, as a free service or by refugees themselves who will pay the cart's owner with cereal.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Two young girls fetch water in an opened watercourse, in order to water their plots in the market gardening site in Wadi Kariari close to Oure Cassoni camp. 113 wadi (river) flow into Wadi Kariari from April to September. During and following that period the wadi looks like a brown lake. When it gets dry because of lack of rains, the market gardening is getting slower although still possible because of the existing wells. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 At sunset, two refugees coming back from their field, located several hours walking from the camp are talking. They bring back straw to build wall, roof or to feed animals.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset time near Farchana refugee site. A couple of friends rest while listening to the radio after a day spent cultivating in their fields, few hours walk from the camp. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 Hidden behind a low hill, two brothers dig the earth to mix it with water, on their brickworks site. Then They pour the mud in a brick wooden mussel.  For security reason, the refugees are advised to make their bricks in a distance from the camp. During rainy season, anyone can hurt himself by falling in a hole, and small children can even drawn. Futhermore, rains seep in the ground through holes and cause landslide. Close to houses, it might destroy them. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 A young refugee watches the water entering her plot of market gardening. An ngo targets 600 potential beneficiairies identified as vulnerables (women alone or widow with children, ...) and help volunteer to get a plot and the support of agricultural adviser. Six sites have been created. On that one, 125 beneficiaries have a plot. Some of the beneficiairies try to sell vegetables in Abeche, the biggest city in eastern Chad (77 kms west from Gaga), but the bussiness cannot be profitable because of the transport costs. Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 80 kilometers east from Abeche, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in mai 2005.
 A woman cuts in pieces a small trunk to share with her neighbours. Wood is bought in the region of Adre by UNHCR (close to the border with Sudan) and given to refugees depending of the size of their family, every month : 5 kg of wood for 20 persons. Three sentinels guard the stock of wood. The donation avoid collection in the bush which could be the subject of an argument with local populations and causes of security concern. In general, the family manage their wood stock in a proper way. As the family share is over one or two days before the next distribution, the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Refugees on their way back home, carrying household wood collected for their from, in Bredjing camp. UNHCR buys it in the region of Adre (close to the border with Sudan) and distributes it depending on the size of the family, on a monthly base. 5 kg of wood are given for 20 persons. The donation avoid collection in the bush which can be the subject of an argument with local populations. In general, the wood stock last until one or two days before the next distribution. Then the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush.  Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees on 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 66 kilometers away from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
 In her family compound, a refugee cleans millet by getting rid of the dust and herbs. She lets the millet fall from a calabash into a bucket. The light wind blows away the impurity. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 A couple in the courtyard of their home. Saleh Hamid Abdul 80 years old and his wife, Foko Abakar Ahmed 35. No house but a tent. The woman: "We arrive 7 years ago, my husband, five children and I. Then we got another child in Chad. We came from Fasher. Seven days to reach Chad." The husband comes. In a sigh, he tells his wife: "Tell them that everything is ok for us, don't say anything bad about the camp. Everything is ok except the tent. It's getting old." Afraid to be forcibly brought back to Darfur, the old man warns his wife not to complain, but to describe Oure Cassoni as an haven.... He resumes: "I am a keeper in the food distribution center and get 25 000 CFA (53 $) a month thanks to Acted (an ngo). Two of my children (16 and 17 years old) study in Sudan because there is no E-level in Oure Cassoni. The oldest is in Khartoum. He lives like a displaced person... I got some news from my fields, in Darfur. No one is cultivating them. Houses of the village have been bombed but some are still standing. My house has been burnt. Only God knows my future." Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Mariam Issac Hassan poses with her six children in the compound of her home. Safia Ahbab Abdulaye, 16 years old (girl on the right), Nusur Ahbab Abdulaye, 14 years old (boy in blue tee-shirt), Tahir Ahmat Ali, 12 years old (left with shirt), Gisima Abdulaye Yacoub, 9 years old (girl with red scarf), Khatir Abdulaye Yacoub, 6 years old (with green shorts) and Said Abdulaye Yacoub, 4 years old (boy with white tunic). Mariam arrived in Djabal in 2004. "I left Sudan with 5 children. I gave birth in Chad to the last one, Said. I was living in Tukul in Dafur, close to Bayda." She was supposed to be relocated in a different country as she is disabled and cannot walk easily. "I was ready to go anywhere to get treatment, no matter no country. I would have left with my children. I was sent to Abeche (221 kilometers from Djabal) where I spent two years in the transit center. Nothing happened. I was taken back to the camp, five months ago. I don't know why I could not leave. No explanations. The problem seems to be the form that the father have to sign to let the children go. My children are from different fathers. One did not want to sign the form. he finally accepted. But then rose other problems that I don't understand... So here I am, in Djabal." She waited two years in vain in Abeche. "I have no choice except accepting the situation. This is not my country, I am seeking help for treatment in a country which is not mine. I cannot do anything to push my destiny. May be God does not want me to travel." Being disabled, she cannot work in a field. "My children found a field and worked on it, but it did not give us anything. Lack of water and rain. We rely on food distributions. I do not know what future can be like. I am disabled and sick. I do not have future any more. I only hope for my children. If they could study. I never live a nice period in my life. I lost my father before I am born. My mother raised me. I marry the father of my first two children.  We were arguing all the time. I did not want him anymore. My mother said that we have to pay him back the dowry. Anyway, it was still his responsability to help his children. Being poor, he has nothing. So he gave his food distribution card to feed them. Meanwhile I remarry a second husband and had also all problem on earth with him. My second husband said that if my first gives his food card, that means that he still wants me. So he stabbed me. Since then, I cannot walk properly. …" Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 A young woman in her family's compound where she keeps her sheeps. Farchana camp shelter 22 887 persons on 30 september 2011. It is located 56 km away from Sudan and was opened in january 2004.
 Sunset time in Farchana camp. Children come back from distant fields, riding donkeys. They bring back home straw to feed the animals or to make seko (straw panel used for roof or compound boundaries). Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 A young refugee contemplates the southern part of Farchana's camp from a hill that cut the refugee's site in two. His week follow a sudanese pace. School from sunday to thursday, friday and saturday being the week-end. Farchana camp sheltered 22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011. It was opened in january 2004 and is located 56 kilometer from the sudanese border, 120 kilometer east from Abeche, the main city in Eastern Chad.
A young refugee contemplates the southern part of Farchana's camp from a hill that cut the refugee's site in two. His week follow a sudanese pace. School from sunday to thursday, friday and saturday being the week-end.Farchana camp sheltered 22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011. It was opened in january 2004 and is located 56 kilometer from the sudanese border, 120 kilometer east from Abeche, the main city in Eastern Chad.
 Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. Following water collection, some refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. There are fifteen wells in Djabal. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. Following water collection, some refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. There are fifteen wells in Djabal.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. There are fifteen wells in Djabal. Following water collection, the refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. 62% of the camp's population are women while 60% are under 18 years old. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Early morning at a well, refugees pour water in their jerricans to bring back home. The wells are accessible during specific time in the morning and afternoon. There are fifteen wells in Djabal. Following water collection, the refugees will go to their field located tens of kilometers from the camp. 62% of the camp's population are women while 60% are under 18 years old.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the courtyard of the family's compound, a refugee is resting, listening to the radio. It is market day in Goz Beida, the big chadian city located 4 kilometers away from the camp of Djabal which sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. Many people went there. The camp is day sleeping.
In the courtyard of the family's compound, a refugee is resting, listening to the radio. It is market day in Goz Beida, the big chadian city located 4 kilometers away from the camp of Djabal which sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. Many people went there. The camp is day sleeping.
 A women carries her niece to the health center of the camp because of a foot swollen with pus. Days ago, the girl walked on a thorn during wood collection. Neither the mother or the grand mother who are living with her brought her there, afraid of having to stay there for a long time, thus not being able to carry on their daily activities. The child crying and yelling while the grand mother was trying to burst the abscess attract the attention of a neighbouring aunt. Exasperated by the stubbornness of the parents not decided to carry the child to the hospital, she took her on her shoulders.     
A women carries her niece to the health center of the camp because of a foot swollen with pus. Days ago, the girl walked on a thorn during wood collection. Neither the mother or the grand mother who are living with her brought her there, afraid of having to stay there for a long time, thus not being able to carry on their daily activities. The child crying and yelling while the grand mother was trying to burst the abscess attract the attention of a neighbouring aunt. Exasperated by the stubbornness of the parents not decided to carry the child to the hospital, she took her on her shoulders.   
 In a street of Djabal camp, a refugee is riding around on his horse, his most precious belonging. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. The minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa. 
In a street of Djabal camp, a refugee is riding around on his horse, his most precious belonging. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. The minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa. 
 Gymnastic course on the playground  before the Ali Dinnar primary school. The teacher in white djallabia (tunic) watches the pupils lined up in a big circle, passing the ball one to each other. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
Gymnastic course on the playground  before the Ali Dinnar primary school. The teacher in white djallabia (tunic) watches the pupils lined up in a big circle, passing the ball one to each other. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
 Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.
Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.
 Morning lesson, in Ali Dinnar primary school. Class are mixed, but boys and girls sit in different rows. The curriculum is the sudanese one. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.      
Morning lesson, in Ali Dinnar primary school. Class are mixed, but boys and girls sit in different rows. The curriculum is the sudanese one. 690 pupils attend the school where 19 teachers are working. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.    
 Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
Pupils during a morning course in Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. 19 teachers are teaching. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. The buildings are not numerous enough. So, the first degree class are held outside, in the middle of the courtyard, under the shade of trees, sitting on mats. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.  
 During the morning break, some of the 19 school teachers are relaxing in the courtyard of Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. There are not numerous enough buildings. 11 classes for 7 classrooms. No teachers room aswell. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.   
During the morning break, some of the 19 school teachers are relaxing in the courtyard of Ali Dinnar primary school that 690 pupils attend. There are not numerous enough buildings. 11 classes for 7 classrooms. No teachers room aswell. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old. 
 106 female students, during a Literature class, Grade 8 (from 14 to 16 years old), in Oure Cassoni. In secondary school, the classes are not mixed. No desks, no chairs. Everyone is sitting on mates.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
106 female students, during a Literature class, Grade 8 (from 14 to 16 years old), in Oure Cassoni. In secondary school, the classes are not mixed. No desks, no chairs. Everyone is sitting on mates. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The class is over in Ali Dinnar primary school. To avoid any robbery, pupils carry a blackboard to the school store which has an iron door that can be locked. The curriculum in darfurian refugees schools is the same than in Sudan. 690 pupils attend Ali Dinnar school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. First degree primary class are held outside, under trees. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
The class is over in Ali Dinnar primary school. To avoid any robbery, pupils carry a blackboard to the school store which has an iron door that can be locked. The curriculum in darfurian refugees schools is the same than in Sudan. 690 pupils attend Ali Dinnar school where 19 teachers are working. The buildings are not numerous enough. There are 11 classes for 7 classrooms. First degree primary class are held outside, under trees. There are 6 primary schools in Djabal for 4496 pupils (2420 boys and 2076 girls). 60 % of the camp's population is under 18 years old.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Few hundred meters from Djabal's camp is located the refugees' cemetery. The graves can hardly be seen. Two gravestones mark their position. One for the head, one for the feet. With time, only remain a tiny ballast while vegetation irreparably regain ground.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Few hundred meters from Djabal's camp is located the refugees' cemetery. The graves can hardly be seen. Two gravestones mark their position. One for the head, one for the feet. With time, only remain a tiny ballast while vegetation irreparably regain ground. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Following the deceased of the spouse of a fellow refugee, friends and relatives gather in a mosk to pray.
Following the deceased of the spouse of a fellow refugee, friends and relatives gather in a mosk to pray.
 Refugees collect non food items NFI (soap and a piece of material) given by an ngo.   Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees, 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 66 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
Refugees collect non food items NFI (soap and a piece of material) given by an ngo.  Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees, 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 66 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
 A women passes along the wall of a family plot in Oure Cassoni refugees' camp, the futher north. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa who composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. A Zaghawa compound is constructed like a maze, with walls and turns blocking the view from one part of the house to another. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
A women passes along the wall of a family plot in Oure Cassoni refugees' camp, the futher north. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa who composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. A Zaghawa compound is constructed like a maze, with walls and turns blocking the view from one part of the house to another.Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The filling station situated in the camp on the verge of the market. The petrol comes all the way from Abeche, 361 kms from there, on sandy and bumpy tracks. Uneasy to know if the sellers are sudanese refugees or chadian citizens... Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People come from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
The filling station situated in the camp on the verge of the market. The petrol comes all the way from Abeche, 361 kms from there, on sandy and bumpy tracks. Uneasy to know if the sellers are sudanese refugees or chadian citizens... Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People come from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp are Zaghawa which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In Oure Cassoni camp, a French language price winner in a school examination waits to get her diploma and a gift during the awards ceremony. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
In Oure Cassoni camp, a French language price winner in a school examination waits to get her diploma and a gift during the awards ceremony. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In the market of Oure Cassoni, few kilometers from Darfur, a shop keeper and his children close their shop to go to the mosk for the Friday prayer. Despite being in Chad, the currency used in the market is sudanese pound and not CFA Francs although the CFA notes may be accepted. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
In the market of Oure Cassoni, few kilometers from Darfur, a shop keeper and his children close their shop to go to the mosk for the Friday prayer. Despite being in Chad, the currency used in the market is sudanese pound and not CFA Francs although the CFA notes may be accepted. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Abakar Adam Israel, a tailor whose shop is located on the main street of Djabal camp. "I arrived here with the first bunch of people. Considering all the problem in Darfur, I came to Chad looking for safety. I was a tailor in Sudan aswell but it is only since 4 years that I am a tailor here. A brother who was working in Libya sent me the money to buy my shop. Before, I was living and working in Maji Maje, between Bayda and Gongo, in Darfur. Because of the war, I came with my wife an my six children. Sometimes I make 1 000 CFA (2.11 $), somtimes 500 CFA (1,05$). My wife and children have a field located more than 5 hours walk from the camp. There is a hut there. During rain season, they sleep overthere. In Chad, I manage to make a leaving thanks to the field and my work. I hpe to go back to Sudan as soon as possible, as long as security is garanteed. I remember perfectly the day I arrive. It was 27 july 2003. We came from many villages. When I go back to Darfur, I forget and forgive because I will be at home. Here I remeber any event. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Abakar Adam Israel, a tailor whose shop is located on the main street of Djabal camp. "I arrived here with the first bunch of people. Considering all the problem in Darfur, I came to Chad looking for safety. I was a tailor in Sudan aswell but it is only since 4 years that I am a tailor here. A brother who was working in Libya sent me the money to buy my shop. Before, I was living and working in Maji Maje, between Bayda and Gongo, in Darfur. Because of the war, I came with my wife an my six children. Sometimes I make 1 000 CFA (2.11 $), somtimes 500 CFA (1,05$). My wife and children have a field located more than 5 hours walk from the camp. There is a hut there. During rain season, they sleep overthere. In Chad, I manage to make a leaving thanks to the field and my work. I hpe to go back to Sudan as soon as possible, as long as security is garanteed. I remember perfectly the day I arrive. It was 27 july 2003. We came from many villages. When I go back to Darfur, I forget and forgive because I will be at home. Here I remeber any event.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Ahmed Mahamat Khamis, 8 years old on his way back home from the grocery where he bartered millet for sugar and oignons. He carries in a bucket a bag of sugar, some oignons (in plastic pocket) and the "change": some millet. The barter economy is common practice in the camps. One brings a product to the grocery to get what he lacks (sugar, oignon, soap,...) A koro of mill (measure of a big bowl) is equivalent to 400 CFA (0.85 USD) while a small mould is equivalent to 150 CFA (0.32 USD). Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Ahmed Mahamat Khamis, 8 years old on his way back home from the grocery where he bartered millet for sugar and oignons. He carries in a bucket a bag of sugar, some oignons (in plastic pocket) and the "change": some millet. The barter economy is common practice in the camps. One brings a product to the grocery to get what he lacks (sugar, oignon, soap,...) A koro of mill (measure of a big bowl) is equivalent to 400 CFA (0.85 USD) while a small mould is equivalent to 150 CFA (0.32 USD).Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the market of Gaga camp, a refugee passes by a clothes shop.  Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011). The camp located 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2005.
In the market of Gaga camp, a refugee passes by a clothes shop. Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011). The camp located 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in may 2005.
 An assistant of Ahbab Moustapha, one out of the ten bakers of Djabal camp, takes out of the brick oven covered with clay, one of the last bake of the day while two others prepare the bread. They start there day work at 1.30 a.m and finish around 8.30 a.m., everyday. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
An assistant of Ahbab Moustapha, one out of the ten bakers of Djabal camp, takes out of the brick oven covered with clay, one of the last bake of the day while two others prepare the bread. They start there day work at 1.30 a.m and finish around 8.30 a.m., everyday.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 A baker in Oure Cassoni sits nearby his oven after having completed the last bake of the day. His work site is situated on the verge of the market. Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People comes from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
A baker in Oure Cassoni sits nearby his oven after having completed the last bake of the day. His work site is situated on the verge of the market. Oure Cassoni is the biggest market of the region. People comes from Bahai, the closest chadian city to get goods merely coming from Sudan. Bahai has 3 000 inhabitants while Oure Cassoni camp over 31 000. Sudanese currency (pounds) is accepted in the market and seems even more important than the CFA. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In search of a good deal, a female refugee enters the tents where groups of women are selling the products they manufacture to get extra money.  The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp Oure Cassoni belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
In search of a good deal, a female refugee enters the tents where groups of women are selling the products they manufacture to get extra money.  The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp Oure Cassoni belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Daoud Abderassoul, one of the three Umda (traditionnal leader) of Djabal's camp in his compound home. Before the camp was established in june 2004, some refugees came for a reconnaissance visit on the site . They went back to the border to reassure their fellows refugees. Since they have been choosen by the community to be the leaders. He has two wifes, 10 children and two donkeys. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Daoud Abderassoul, one of the three Umda (traditionnal leader) of Djabal's camp in his compound home. Before the camp was established in june 2004, some refugees came for a reconnaissance visit on the site . They went back to the border to reassure their fellows refugees. Since they have been choosen by the community to be the leaders. He has two wifes, 10 children and two donkeys.The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset time in Djabal's camp. While adults are coming back from their distant fields, teenagers are playing football before total darkness. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Sunset time in Djabal's camp. While adults are coming back from their distant fields, teenagers are playing football before total darkness.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a corner of a playground, in Djabal camp, a young refugee carries rubbish to a garbage dump that has been digged. All day long, refugees bring their waste in bucket or wheelbarrow and get rid of them in the hole. In the evening, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and stay nearby to avoid any propagation.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In a corner of a playground, in Djabal camp, a young refugee carries rubbish to a garbage dump that has been digged. All day long, refugees bring their waste in bucket or wheelbarrow and get rid of them in the hole. In the evening, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and stay nearby to avoid any propagation. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Daoud Abderassoul, an Umda (a traditionnal leader) of the refugees leads the maghrib  (sunset prayer) in a mosk in the camp, a delimited compound. The worshipers are praying on mats under a tree. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Daoud Abderassoul, an Umda (a traditionnal leader) of the refugees leads the maghrib  (sunset prayer) in a mosk in the camp, a delimited compound. The worshipers are praying on mats under a tree. The main tribes in the camp are the Massalite and the Dadjo. the minority are Fur, Taman and Zaghawa. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In Djabal, refugees watch TV in a television playground create and run by the three Umda (traditionnal leaders) on the camp. In the evening, people come to watch programs: sports, songs, movies, news...  There are 5 televisions set to offer a choice as wide as possible. On the first screen, news are displayed (bbc, aljazzera, télétchad, sudanese TV), on the second actions movies, cartoons, on the third songs, entertainment from Sudan, Nigeria, Eritrea,... on the fourth sports, and on the last one football only. People pay 50 CFA (0.11 USD) for the whole evening. The project is run like an association. The money pays for diesel, engine maintenance... There are approximately 15 places to pay and watch TV in the camp, « but they ask 100 CFA (0.22 USD) », says an Umda.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In Djabal, refugees watch TV in a television playground create and run by the three Umda (traditionnal leaders) on the camp. In the evening, people come to watch programs: sports, songs, movies, news...  There are 5 televisions set to offer a choice as wide as possible. On the first screen, news are displayed (bbc, aljazzera, télétchad, sudanese TV), on the second actions movies, cartoons, on the third songs, entertainment from Sudan, Nigeria, Eritrea,... on the fourth sports, and on the last one football only. People pay 50 CFA (0.11 USD) for the whole evening. The project is run like an association. The money pays for diesel, engine maintenance... There are approximately 15 places to pay and watch TV in the camp, « but they ask 100 CFA (0.22 USD) », says an Umda. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a street of the Djabal camp, a woman and her son watch an heap of garbages burning. All day long, refugees get rid of their waste in a hole. When evening comes, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and wathc over to avoid any propagation of fire. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In a street of the Djabal camp, a woman and her son watch an heap of garbages burning. All day long, refugees get rid of their waste in a hole. When evening comes, a refugee trained by an ngo, set fire to it and wathc over to avoid any propagation of fire.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 7.30 a.m. in the vicinity of Oure Cassoni camp. A couple of sheperds are pushing a herd of sheeps to go to a wadi (dry river), several kilometers from there, where water and grass are still available even during dry season. To be able to go on with their activities, tens of refugees gather their animals to organize one big herd that few refugees lead and guard. The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group.  Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
7.30 a.m. in the vicinity of Oure Cassoni camp. A couple of sheperds are pushing a herd of sheeps to go to a wadi (dry river), several kilometers from there, where water and grass are still available even during dry season. To be able to go on with their activities, tens of refugees gather their animals to organize one big herd that few refugees lead and guard.The immense majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 In the main bussiness street of Djabal where the vast majority of shops are built, a refugee mason builds a shop and a store for a client both farmer and bussinessman. In the store, the farmer will store his harvest of millet and groundnut to avoid it to be destroy in case of fire. Indeed, many refugee farmers use staw and wood granary. The construction costs to the owner 350 000 to 400 000 CFA (740 to 846 USD). He tooks a credit to pay the building. This investment shows how much the refugies think they will last in Chad. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In the main bussiness street of Djabal where the vast majority of shops are built, a refugee mason builds a shop and a store for a client both farmer and bussinessman. In the store, the farmer will store his harvest of millet and groundnut to avoid it to be destroy in case of fire. Indeed, many refugee farmers use staw and wood granary. The construction costs to the owner 350 000 to 400 000 CFA (740 to 846 USD). He tooks a credit to pay the building. This investment shows how much the refugies think they will last in Chad.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In the family compound, in Djabal camp, an old refugee carrying her grand-son on her back is preparing the traditionnal sorghum bier. After having soak the red millet to get a dough, she dries and smashes it on a white canvas. Looking for cash money, the refugies increase income activities. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In the family compound, in Djabal camp, an old refugee carrying her grand-son on her back is preparing the traditionnal sorghum bier. After having soak the red millet to get a dough, she dries and smashes it on a white canvas. Looking for cash money, the refugies increase income activities.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Hawa Ahmat Abakar, a 18 years old pregnant woman waits for her first child. She is the second wife of her husband. The first lives in the neighbourhood in a different compound. She arrived in Djabal camp with the first convoy, in 2003. "Although I am sudanese, my child born in Chad will be a chadian with sudanese origin. I do not have any field. Concerning my future, the only thing I can say is that I am living here. I was living in Dangajoura, in the region of Beida, in Darfur. I was feeling so well there. I never came back. The people who chase us away are still there and can still hurt us. My father is still in Darfur while my mother is living next door.  Sometimes he come to visit us. We left the mangos trees to the arabs. They stole also our cattle and burnt the rest. When I see some arabs in Chad, that's remind me of the past and painful events..." Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Hawa Ahmat Abakar, a 18 years old pregnant woman waits for her first child. She is the second wife of her husband. The first lives in the neighbourhood in a different compound. She arrived in Djabal camp with the first convoy, in 2003. "Although I am sudanese, my child born in Chad will be a chadian with sudanese origin. I do not have any field. Concerning my future, the only thing I can say is that I am living here. I was living in Dangajoura, in the region of Beida, in Darfur. I was feeling so well there. I never came back. The people who chase us away are still there and can still hurt us. My father is still in Darfur while my mother is living next door.  Sometimes he come to visit us. We left the mangos trees to the arabs. They stole also our cattle and burnt the rest. When I see some arabs in Chad, that's remind me of the past and painful events..."Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In Nour Al Islam coranic school, one of the madrassa of Djabal refugees' camp, the marabout, Juma Ibrahim Abdallah, chants verses that he reads from the small wooden board (alluha) where pupils write down sura, using black ink and a wooden pen (calam). 88 children from the area attend the madrassa, in mixed session (boys and girls). For Juma Ibrahim Abdallah: "These children are like my own children."   Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.   
In Nour Al Islam coranic school, one of the madrassa of Djabal refugees' camp, the marabout, Juma Ibrahim Abdallah, chants verses that he reads from the small wooden board (alluha) where pupils write down sura, using black ink and a wooden pen (calam). 88 children from the area attend the madrassa, in mixed session (boys and girls). For Juma Ibrahim Abdallah: "These children are like my own children." Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border. 
 In Oure Cassoni camp, a group of majorette sings and dances.  The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
In Oure Cassoni camp, a group of majorette sings and dances. The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore.Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 The class is over in the secondary school. Students are getting out of the class and tyding their shech (long scarf curling up the head) up, because of the cold and strong wind that sweeps across the camp. The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
The class is over in the secondary school. Students are getting out of the class and tyding their shech (long scarf curling up the head) up, because of the cold and strong wind that sweeps across the camp.The vast majority of the refugees living in the camp belong to the Zaghawa tribe which composes the JEM (Justice and Egality Movement), the main and more assertive darfurian rebel group. As the mixed force (Chadian and Sudanese Armies) are camping nearby, locking the border with Sudan, the JEM cannot come in the camp anymore.Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 A woman prepares tea, in her kitchen, a separate hut in the family compound. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
A woman prepares tea, in her kitchen, a separate hut in the family compound.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset in a street of Djabal camp. A young boy goes back home carrying home bamboos to make seko wall in his family compound. A seko is a makeshift wall (like the one behind him) that usually marked the boundary of an household compound. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Sunset in a street of Djabal camp. A young boy goes back home carrying home bamboos to make seko wall in his family compound. A seko is a makeshift wall (like the one behind him) that usually marked the boundary of an household compound.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sitting under the shade of a tree, in his compound, a refugee makes straw panel used for roof. He sell it for 2000 CFA (4.18 USD). "Two days are necessary to make a panel. One day to collect the straw out of the bush and one day to make it." Looking for cash money, the refugies do income activities.   Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.   
Sitting under the shade of a tree, in his compound, a refugee makes straw panel used for roof. He sell it for 2000 CFA (4.18 USD). "Two days are necessary to make a panel. One day to collect the straw out of the bush and one day to make it." Looking for cash money, the refugies do income activities. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border. 
 In Treguine Health Center, a mid-wife is ausculting a pregnant refugee. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
In Treguine Health Center, a mid-wife is ausculting a pregnant refugee.Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 In the delivery room of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, Magon, a male nurse, helps a 30 years old mother to deliver her seventh child. The previous one is born two years ago. Since early morning, the nurse assisted 5 deliveries. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100 per week. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In the delivery room of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, Magon, a male nurse, helps a 30 years old mother to deliver her seventh child. The previous one is born two years ago. Since early morning, the nurse assisted 5 deliveries. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100 per week. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 In a ward of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, a young mother who delivered fews hours ago breast feeds her child. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
In a ward of the maternity of the Health Center of Djabal camp, a young mother who delivered fews hours ago breast feeds her child. The UNHCR prevision in term of births in Djabal is 80 per week. In fact, the figures are going from 86 to almost 100. Every year from 4472 to 5200 refugees are born only in Djabal camp.Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Treguine Health Center. First step of the monitoring process to determine the medical status of a child and particularly his growth, accurate criteria to monitor malnutrition, medical assistants measure a young refugee.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
Treguine Health Center. First step of the monitoring process to determine the medical status of a child and particularly his growth, accurate criteria to monitor malnutrition, medical assistants measure a young refugee. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 In a foyer, men, most of them old and vulnerable (some almost blind) unravel bags bought in the market to get fibers in order to make ropes. Sold it provide extra cash for their families.  Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in mai 2005.
In a foyer, men, most of them old and vulnerable (some almost blind) unravel bags bought in the market to get fibers in order to make ropes. Sold it provide extra cash for their families. Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border was opened in mai 2005.
 Children play at a playground equiped with some iron swings and frames. Farchana camp  (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), located 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 1020 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
Children play at a playground equiped with some iron swings and frames.Farchana camp  (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), located 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 1020 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. In the WFP food reserve shed in Treguine camp, working in a dusty cloud, singing in rythm to keep the pace, local WFP staff carry bags of wheat to donkeys carts. The carts will bring the bags to the distribution point few hundreds meters aways.    Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
Food distribution day in Treguine. In the WFP food reserve shed in Treguine camp, working in a dusty cloud, singing in rythm to keep the pace, local WFP staff carry bags of wheat to donkeys carts. The carts will bring the bags to the distribution point few hundreds meters aways.   Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. A local staff from Chadian Red Cross is distributing wheat to a refugee. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. In fact, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
Food distribution day in Treguine. A local staff from Chadian Red Cross is distributing wheat to a refugee. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. In fact, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Food distribution day in Treguine. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. For instance, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month. A young refugee perched on wheat bags collected for several families of the same area, goes back home in a donkey cart. The carts are rented for vulnerable refugees by UNHCR, as a free service or by refugees themselves who will pay the cart's owner with cereal.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
Food distribution day in Treguine. The refugees get Corn Soya Blend (CSB) i.e. enriched flour with oil and soya, cereal (sorghum, wheat), oil, sugar, salt and soap. The quantity depends on the size of the family. For instance, each person gets 12,75 kg of cereal a month.A young refugee perched on wheat bags collected for several families of the same area, goes back home in a donkey cart. The carts are rented for vulnerable refugees by UNHCR, as a free service or by refugees themselves who will pay the cart's owner with cereal. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Two young girls fetch water in an opened watercourse, in order to water their plots in the market gardening site in Wadi Kariari close to Oure Cassoni camp. 113 wadi (river) flow into Wadi Kariari from April to September. During and following that period the wadi looks like a brown lake. When it gets dry because of lack of rains, the market gardening is getting slower although still possible because of the existing wells. Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
Two young girls fetch water in an opened watercourse, in order to water their plots in the market gardening site in Wadi Kariari close to Oure Cassoni camp. 113 wadi (river) flow into Wadi Kariari from April to September. During and following that period the wadi looks like a brown lake. When it gets dry because of lack of rains, the market gardening is getting slower although still possible because of the existing wells.Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 At sunset, two refugees coming back from their field, located several hours walking from the camp are talking. They bring back straw to build wall, roof or to feed animals.  Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
At sunset, two refugees coming back from their field, located several hours walking from the camp are talking. They bring back straw to build wall, roof or to feed animals. Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 Sunset time near Farchana refugee site. A couple of friends rest while listening to the radio after a day spent cultivating in their fields, few hours walk from the camp. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
Sunset time near Farchana refugee site. A couple of friends rest while listening to the radio after a day spent cultivating in their fields, few hours walk from the camp.Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 Hidden behind a low hill, two brothers dig the earth to mix it with water, on their brickworks site. Then They pour the mud in a brick wooden mussel.  For security reason, the refugees are advised to make their bricks in a distance from the camp. During rainy season, anyone can hurt himself by falling in a hole, and small children can even drawn. Futhermore, rains seep in the ground through holes and cause landslide. Close to houses, it might destroy them. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
Hidden behind a low hill, two brothers dig the earth to mix it with water, on their brickworks site. Then They pour the mud in a brick wooden mussel. For security reason, the refugees are advised to make their bricks in a distance from the camp. During rainy season, anyone can hurt himself by falling in a hole, and small children can even drawn. Futhermore, rains seep in the ground through holes and cause landslide. Close to houses, it might destroy them.Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 A young refugee watches the water entering her plot of market gardening. An ngo targets 600 potential beneficiairies identified as vulnerables (women alone or widow with children, ...) and help volunteer to get a plot and the support of agricultural adviser. Six sites have been created. On that one, 125 beneficiaries have a plot. Some of the beneficiairies try to sell vegetables in Abeche, the biggest city in eastern Chad (77 kms west from Gaga), but the bussiness cannot be profitable because of the transport costs. Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 80 kilometers east from Abeche, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in mai 2005.
A young refugee watches the water entering her plot of market gardening. An ngo targets 600 potential beneficiairies identified as vulnerables (women alone or widow with children, ...) and help volunteer to get a plot and the support of agricultural adviser. Six sites have been created. On that one, 125 beneficiaries have a plot. Some of the beneficiairies try to sell vegetables in Abeche, the biggest city in eastern Chad (77 kms west from Gaga), but the bussiness cannot be profitable because of the transport costs.Gaga camp (21 276 refugees on 30 september 2011), 40 kilometers west from Farchana, 80 kilometers east from Abeche, 71 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in mai 2005.
 A woman cuts in pieces a small trunk to share with her neighbours. Wood is bought in the region of Adre by UNHCR (close to the border with Sudan) and given to refugees depending of the size of their family, every month : 5 kg of wood for 20 persons. Three sentinels guard the stock of wood. The donation avoid collection in the bush which could be the subject of an argument with local populations and causes of security concern. In general, the family manage their wood stock in a proper way. As the family share is over one or two days before the next distribution, the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush.  Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
A woman cuts in pieces a small trunk to share with her neighbours. Wood is bought in the region of Adre by UNHCR (close to the border with Sudan) and given to refugees depending of the size of their family, every month : 5 kg of wood for 20 persons. Three sentinels guard the stock of wood. The donation avoid collection in the bush which could be the subject of an argument with local populations and causes of security concern. In general, the family manage their wood stock in a proper way. As the family share is over one or two days before the next distribution, the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush. Treguine camp  (18 746 refugees on 30 september 2011), 23 kilometers south from Farchana, 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 72 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in september 2004.
 Refugees on their way back home, carrying household wood collected for their from, in Bredjing camp. UNHCR buys it in the region of Adre (close to the border with Sudan) and distributes it depending on the size of the family, on a monthly base. 5 kg of wood are given for 20 persons. The donation avoid collection in the bush which can be the subject of an argument with local populations. In general, the wood stock last until one or two days before the next distribution. Then the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush.  Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees on 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 66 kilometers away from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
Refugees on their way back home, carrying household wood collected for their from, in Bredjing camp. UNHCR buys it in the region of Adre (close to the border with Sudan) and distributes it depending on the size of the family, on a monthly base. 5 kg of wood are given for 20 persons. The donation avoid collection in the bush which can be the subject of an argument with local populations. In general, the wood stock last until one or two days before the next distribution. Then the refugees completed it by collecting small quantities in the bush. Bredjing camp (35 615 refugees on 30 september 2011), 20 kilometers south from Farchana, 66 kilometers away from the sudanese border was opened in may 2004.
 In her family compound, a refugee cleans millet by getting rid of the dust and herbs. She lets the millet fall from a calabash into a bucket. The light wind blows away the impurity. Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
In her family compound, a refugee cleans millet by getting rid of the dust and herbs. She lets the millet fall from a calabash into a bucket. The light wind blows away the impurity.Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
 A couple in the courtyard of their home. Saleh Hamid Abdul 80 years old and his wife, Foko Abakar Ahmed 35. No house but a tent. The woman: "We arrive 7 years ago, my husband, five children and I. Then we got another child in Chad. We came from Fasher. Seven days to reach Chad." The husband comes. In a sigh, he tells his wife: "Tell them that everything is ok for us, don't say anything bad about the camp. Everything is ok except the tent. It's getting old." Afraid to be forcibly brought back to Darfur, the old man warns his wife not to complain, but to describe Oure Cassoni as an haven.... He resumes: "I am a keeper in the food distribution center and get 25 000 CFA (53 $) a month thanks to Acted (an ngo). Two of my children (16 and 17 years old) study in Sudan because there is no E-level in Oure Cassoni. The oldest is in Khartoum. He lives like a displaced person... I got some news from my fields, in Darfur. No one is cultivating them. Houses of the village have been bombed but some are still standing. My house has been burnt. Only God knows my future." Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
A couple in the courtyard of their home. Saleh Hamid Abdul 80 years old and his wife, Foko Abakar Ahmed 35. No house but a tent. The woman: "We arrive 7 years ago, my husband, five children and I. Then we got another child in Chad. We came from Fasher. Seven days to reach Chad." The husband comes. In a sigh, he tells his wife: "Tell them that everything is ok for us, don't say anything bad about the camp. Everything is ok except the tent. It's getting old." Afraid to be forcibly brought back to Darfur, the old man warns his wife not to complain, but to describe Oure Cassoni as an haven.... He resumes: "I am a keeper in the food distribution center and get 25 000 CFA (53 $) a month thanks to Acted (an ngo). Two of my children (16 and 17 years old) study in Sudan because there is no E-level in Oure Cassoni. The oldest is in Khartoum. He lives like a displaced person... I got some news from my fields, in Darfur. No one is cultivating them. Houses of the village have been bombed but some are still standing. My house has been burnt. Only God knows my future."Oure Cassoni camp (31 800 refugees in december 2011), 18 kilometers north from Bahai, 361 kilometers north-east from Abeche, 17 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in july 2004.
 Mariam Issac Hassan poses with her six children in the compound of her home. Safia Ahbab Abdulaye, 16 years old (girl on the right), Nusur Ahbab Abdulaye, 14 years old (boy in blue tee-shirt), Tahir Ahmat Ali, 12 years old (left with shirt), Gisima Abdulaye Yacoub, 9 years old (girl with red scarf), Khatir Abdulaye Yacoub, 6 years old (with green shorts) and Said Abdulaye Yacoub, 4 years old (boy with white tunic). Mariam arrived in Djabal in 2004. "I left Sudan with 5 children. I gave birth in Chad to the last one, Said. I was living in Tukul in Dafur, close to Bayda." She was supposed to be relocated in a different country as she is disabled and cannot walk easily. "I was ready to go anywhere to get treatment, no matter no country. I would have left with my children. I was sent to Abeche (221 kilometers from Djabal) where I spent two years in the transit center. Nothing happened. I was taken back to the camp, five months ago. I don't know why I could not leave. No explanations. The problem seems to be the form that the father have to sign to let the children go. My children are from different fathers. One did not want to sign the form. he finally accepted. But then rose other problems that I don't understand... So here I am, in Djabal." She waited two years in vain in Abeche. "I have no choice except accepting the situation. This is not my country, I am seeking help for treatment in a country which is not mine. I cannot do anything to push my destiny. May be God does not want me to travel." Being disabled, she cannot work in a field. "My children found a field and worked on it, but it did not give us anything. Lack of water and rain. We rely on food distributions. I do not know what future can be like. I am disabled and sick. I do not have future any more. I only hope for my children. If they could study. I never live a nice period in my life. I lost my father before I am born. My mother raised me. I marry the father of my first two children.  We were arguing all the time. I did not want him anymore. My mother said that we have to pay him back the dowry. Anyway, it was still his responsability to help his children. Being poor, he has nothing. So he gave his food distribution card to feed them. Meanwhile I remarry a second husband and had also all problem on earth with him. My second husband said that if my first gives his food card, that means that he still wants me. So he stabbed me. Since then, I cannot walk properly. …" Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
Mariam Issac Hassan poses with her six children in the compound of her home. Safia Ahbab Abdulaye, 16 years old (girl on the right), Nusur Ahbab Abdulaye, 14 years old (boy in blue tee-shirt), Tahir Ahmat Ali, 12 years old (left with shirt), Gisima Abdulaye Yacoub, 9 years old (girl with red scarf), Khatir Abdulaye Yacoub, 6 years old (with green shorts) and Said Abdulaye Yacoub, 4 years old (boy with white tunic). Mariam arrived in Djabal in 2004. "I left Sudan with 5 children. I gave birth in Chad to the last one, Said. I was living in Tukul in Dafur, close to Bayda." She was supposed to be relocated in a different country as she is disabled and cannot walk easily. "I was ready to go anywhere to get treatment, no matter no country. I would have left with my children. I was sent to Abeche (221 kilometers from Djabal) where I spent two years in the transit center. Nothing happened. I was taken back to the camp, five months ago. I don't know why I could not leave. No explanations. The problem seems to be the form that the father have to sign to let the children go. My children are from different fathers. One did not want to sign the form. he finally accepted. But then rose other problems that I don't understand... So here I am, in Djabal." She waited two years in vain in Abeche. "I have no choice except accepting the situation. This is not my country, I am seeking help for treatment in a country which is not mine. I cannot do anything to push my destiny. May be God does not want me to travel." Being disabled, she cannot work in a field. "My children found a field and worked on it, but it did not give us anything. Lack of water and rain. We rely on food distributions. I do not know what future can be like. I am disabled and sick. I do not have future any more. I only hope for my children. If they could study. I never live a nice period in my life. I lost my father before I am born. My mother raised me. I marry the father of my first two children.  We were arguing all the time. I did not want him anymore. My mother said that we have to pay him back the dowry. Anyway, it was still his responsability to help his children. Being poor, he has nothing. So he gave his food distribution card to feed them. Meanwhile I remarry a second husband and had also all problem on earth with him. My second husband said that if my first gives his food card, that means that he still wants me. So he stabbed me. Since then, I cannot walk properly. …"Created on 4 june 2004, Djabal camp sheltered 17.766 persons and 4.681 families in december 2011. It is located 4 kilometers west from Goz Beida, 217 kilometers south from Abeche, 900 kilometers east from N'Djamena the capital and 80 kilometers from the sudanese border.
 A young woman in her family's compound where she keeps her sheeps. Farchana camp shelter 22 887 persons on 30 september 2011. It is located 56 km away from Sudan and was opened in january 2004.
A young woman in her family's compound where she keeps her sheeps.Farchana camp shelter 22 887 persons on 30 september 2011. It is located 56 km away from Sudan and was opened in january 2004.
 Sunset time in Farchana camp. Children come back from distant fields, riding donkeys. They bring back home straw to feed the animals or to make seko (straw panel used for roof or compound boundaries). Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
Sunset time in Farchana camp. Children come back from distant fields, riding donkeys. They bring back home straw to feed the animals or to make seko (straw panel used for roof or compound boundaries).Farchana camp (22 887 refugees on 30 september 2011), 120 kilometers east from Abeche, 56 kilometers from the sudanese border, was opened in january 2004.
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