Wadi (dry river bed) in eastern Chad, north west from Birak.
 Kounoungo. Refugees going back home. The main tribe present in the camp is the Zaghawa's, mainly composing the most powerful rebel movement: Justice and Equality Movement - JEM.
 Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad. 
 Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad.
 Darfurians refugees settled years ago in Birak. During a mourning period, a refugee is preparing tea for his guests.    
 Well in the wadi of Birak where local population and refugees are supplying household water.   
 Ibrahim Ali, the security officer for the refugees in Birak with his second wife and their daughter.
 Fighters from JEM driving through Birak. They come to visit their family, recruit or to supply water, food.   
 JEM fighters carry to Birak Medical Center a fighter wounded in a car accident. Casulaties are heavy: 3 deads, 2 wounded.
 Refugees settled years ago in Birak, Chad. They do not want to move to camp inland in order to stay close to Sudan.
 Traditionnal leaders talking with chadian and refugees, while a fighter, refugee himself, in charge of refugees security looks upon.
 JEM fighter wounded in a car accident cheered up by a friend. The accident has heavy casualties: 3 deads and 2 wounded fighters.   
 JEM fighter waits for water supply to be completed.
 Kounoungo Medical Center, a young refugee.
 Birak Medical center, father and son, long-term refugees.
 A refugee and her daughter leave the Medical center in Birak.   
 Refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan.   
 Medical center, refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan.
 Medical center, refugee settled in Birak, Chad. Some refugees want to stay close to Sudan to go back to visit the land.   
 Refugees settled in Chad. Refugees have often relatives in rebel movement which need a social base close to Darfur. 
 Security officers for the refugees in Birak patrolling the area armed with rather ancient looking automatic weapons.
 Hundreds of refugees waiting to be moved from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camps, 4 hours drive from there.   
 Young refugee waiting to get in a truck to be transferred from Himera to a refugee camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
 Family of refugees and their belongings waiting to be moved to a camp nearby Guereda, 4 hours drive from there.   
 Refugee carrying a bed to trucks for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak. 
 A refugee carrying food bag to a truck for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak.    
 Refugees carrying their belongings to trucks which will transfer them from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive.   
 Refugee passes on her daughter to get her transferred from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to a camp, 4 hours drive.
 A young refugee playing with his sister in Himera area close to the sudanese border.
 Refugee waiting for his family to leave Birak. He will stay.
 Sitting in a truck, refugees waiting to be moved from Birak, a Chadian village, to camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
 Refugees carrying belongings to trucks to be transfer from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
 A truck to transfer refugees from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to refugee camps nearby Guereda, 3 to 4 hours trip. 
 UNHCR convoy crossing the wadi of Birak, transporting refugees to Kounoungo camp (70 km, 3 to 4 hours journey). 
 Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, a young and scared refugee from Birak.
 Ancient area of Kounougo refugee Camp, founded in February 2004.
 Refugee watching his family leaving Himera, to go to a camp inside Chad. He stay to be able to go back sometimes to Sudan.
 Kounoungo. A little girl waits for medical examination.
 Refugees getting down from the truck which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
 Refugees load their belongings to be transported to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted, until they build their own house. 
 People getting down from the truck, which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
 Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child gets a nutritive beverage.
 Refugees in the truck which take them to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted as temporaly shelters.
 Refugees who arrived years ago (the first arrived in 2004) bringing food to the newly arrived refugees from Birak.
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child arm is measured. 
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child is measured. 
 Getting down from the truck which transfer him from Birak, a young refugee is searched by the chadian police who is looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
 A traditionnal leader of the Kounoungo camp. 
 Getting down from the truck which transfer her from Birak, a young refugee is search by chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
 The chadian police is searching for weapon and ammunitions in the belongings of the refugees in the arrival compound of Kounoungo camp. 
 Upon her arrival, refugee searched by Chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. "What do you expect to find ?, she asks exhausted. 
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees.    
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 Long-time arrived refugee in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 New refugees from Birak waiting under the shade of a tree, while long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp are mounting tents to accomodate them. 
 Entrance of a tent for health care in the medical center of Kounoungo refugee camp in Chad. 
 In Kounoungo Medical Center, a refugee is waiting for her child to be examined by the nurse. 
 An old and blind refugee being pulled by a relative between the tents in Kounoungo camp. 
 In the brickfield of Kounoungo, a refugee freshly arrived from Birak makes bricks to build shelter to cook, around his family tent. 
 Cemetery of Kounougo refugee Camp. In the background, the extension built with tents to accommodate the new refugees coming from the Jebel Moun. 
 Kounoungo Camp. New refugee coming from Birak, mainly composed of women and children, are waiting under the shade of a tree to be called to settle in a tent. 
 In the maternity Health Center of Konoungo camp, a long-term refugee after a difficult delivery. Every month up to sixty births occur in the camp. 
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon her arrival in Kounoungo, an exhausted little girl leaning on her mother. 
 In the brickfield of Kounoungo, young girls freshly arrived from Birak are playing. 
 An old, blind refugee in her tent in Kounoungo camp. 
 Kounoungo. Refugee brings water to make bricks. This raises issue of water supply because refugees use treated water meant for human consumption. 
 Newly arrived refugee in Kounoungo camp, prays before her family tent. She has built a small brick wall to protect the kitchen corner from wind and sand. 
 Two newly arrived boys run between tents in Kounougo Camp. The tents are used as temporary shelter until the refugees can build sturdier mud brick huts. 
 Long-time arrived refugees back from wood collection. According to UNHCR, assaults during wood collection are one of the more commun security incidents.    
 Kounoungo camp. Newly arrived refugees carrying the kitchen kit given by UNHCR, to their tent. 
 Brickfield in Kounoungo, a young boy freshly arrived from Birak dig for mud to make bricks that the new refugees use to build shelter to cook, around their tent. 
 Kounoungo. Refugee and friends build a house for his family. The house will replace the tent given years ago which under rain and sun, falls into dust. 
 Kounougo Camp. Over two months after the latest bombing campaign in Darfur UNHCR has transferred some 5,400 refugees to two camps in eastern Chad. 
 Wadi (dry river bed) in eastern Chad, north west from Birak.
Wadi (dry river bed) in eastern Chad, north west from Birak.
 Kounoungo. Refugees going back home. The main tribe present in the camp is the Zaghawa's, mainly composing the most powerful rebel movement: Justice and Equality Movement - JEM.
Kounoungo. Refugees going back home. The main tribe present in the camp is the Zaghawa's, mainly composing the most powerful rebel movement: Justice and Equality Movement - JEM.
 Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad. 
Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad. 
 Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad.
Long-termed settled darfurians refugees in Birak who rather stay close to the border with Sudan instead of moving inland Tchad.
 Darfurians refugees settled years ago in Birak. During a mourning period, a refugee is preparing tea for his guests.    
Darfurians refugees settled years ago in Birak. During a mourning period, a refugee is preparing tea for his guests.  
 Well in the wadi of Birak where local population and refugees are supplying household water.   
Well in the wadi of Birak where local population and refugees are supplying household water. 
 Ibrahim Ali, the security officer for the refugees in Birak with his second wife and their daughter.
Ibrahim Ali, the security officer for the refugees in Birak with his second wife and their daughter.
 Fighters from JEM driving through Birak. They come to visit their family, recruit or to supply water, food.   
Fighters from JEM driving through Birak. They come to visit their family, recruit or to supply water, food. 
 JEM fighters carry to Birak Medical Center a fighter wounded in a car accident. Casulaties are heavy: 3 deads, 2 wounded.
JEM fighters carry to Birak Medical Center a fighter wounded in a car accident. Casulaties are heavy: 3 deads, 2 wounded.
 Refugees settled years ago in Birak, Chad. They do not want to move to camp inland in order to stay close to Sudan.
Refugees settled years ago in Birak, Chad. They do not want to move to camp inland in order to stay close to Sudan.
 Traditionnal leaders talking with chadian and refugees, while a fighter, refugee himself, in charge of refugees security looks upon.
Traditionnal leaders talking with chadian and refugees, while a fighter, refugee himself, in charge of refugees security looks upon.
 JEM fighter wounded in a car accident cheered up by a friend. The accident has heavy casualties: 3 deads and 2 wounded fighters.   
JEM fighter wounded in a car accident cheered up by a friend. The accident has heavy casualties: 3 deads and 2 wounded fighters. 
 JEM fighter waits for water supply to be completed.
JEM fighter waits for water supply to be completed.
 Kounoungo Medical Center, a young refugee.
Kounoungo Medical Center, a young refugee.
 Birak Medical center, father and son, long-term refugees.
Birak Medical center, father and son, long-term refugees.
 A refugee and her daughter leave the Medical center in Birak.   
A refugee and her daughter leave the Medical center in Birak. 
 Refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan.   
Refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan. 
 Medical center, refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan.
Medical center, refugees settled years ago in Birak. They do not want to move inland Chad to stay close to Sudan.
 Medical center, refugee settled in Birak, Chad. Some refugees want to stay close to Sudan to go back to visit the land.   
Medical center, refugee settled in Birak, Chad. Some refugees want to stay close to Sudan to go back to visit the land. 
 Refugees settled in Chad. Refugees have often relatives in rebel movement which need a social base close to Darfur. 
Refugees settled in Chad. Refugees have often relatives in rebel movement which need a social base close to Darfur. 
 Security officers for the refugees in Birak patrolling the area armed with rather ancient looking automatic weapons.
Security officers for the refugees in Birak patrolling the area armed with rather ancient looking automatic weapons.
 Hundreds of refugees waiting to be moved from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camps, 4 hours drive from there.   
Hundreds of refugees waiting to be moved from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camps, 4 hours drive from there. 
 Young refugee waiting to get in a truck to be transferred from Himera to a refugee camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
Young refugee waiting to get in a truck to be transferred from Himera to a refugee camp, 4 hours drive from there. 
 Family of refugees and their belongings waiting to be moved to a camp nearby Guereda, 4 hours drive from there.   
Family of refugees and their belongings waiting to be moved to a camp nearby Guereda, 4 hours drive from there. 
 Refugee carrying a bed to trucks for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak. 
Refugee carrying a bed to trucks for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak. 
 A refugee carrying food bag to a truck for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak.    
A refugee carrying food bag to a truck for the transfer to refugee camps near Guereda, 3 to 4 hours drive from Birak.  
 Refugees carrying their belongings to trucks which will transfer them from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive.   
Refugees carrying their belongings to trucks which will transfer them from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive. 
 Refugee passes on her daughter to get her transferred from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to a camp, 4 hours drive.
Refugee passes on her daughter to get her transferred from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to a camp, 4 hours drive.
 A young refugee playing with his sister in Himera area close to the sudanese border.
A young refugee playing with his sister in Himera area close to the sudanese border.
 Refugee waiting for his family to leave Birak. He will stay.
Refugee waiting for his family to leave Birak. He will stay.
 Sitting in a truck, refugees waiting to be moved from Birak, a Chadian village, to camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
Sitting in a truck, refugees waiting to be moved from Birak, a Chadian village, to camp, 4 hours drive from there. 
 Refugees carrying belongings to trucks to be transfer from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive from there.   
Refugees carrying belongings to trucks to be transfer from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to camp, 4 hours drive from there. 
 A truck to transfer refugees from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to refugee camps nearby Guereda, 3 to 4 hours trip. 
A truck to transfer refugees from Himera, vicinity of Birak, to refugee camps nearby Guereda, 3 to 4 hours trip. 
 UNHCR convoy crossing the wadi of Birak, transporting refugees to Kounoungo camp (70 km, 3 to 4 hours journey). 
UNHCR convoy crossing the wadi of Birak, transporting refugees to Kounoungo camp (70 km, 3 to 4 hours journey). 
 Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, a young and scared refugee from Birak.
Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, a young and scared refugee from Birak.
 Ancient area of Kounougo refugee Camp, founded in February 2004.
Ancient area of Kounougo refugee Camp, founded in February 2004.
 Refugee watching his family leaving Himera, to go to a camp inside Chad. He stay to be able to go back sometimes to Sudan.
Refugee watching his family leaving Himera, to go to a camp inside Chad. He stay to be able to go back sometimes to Sudan.
 Kounoungo. A little girl waits for medical examination.
Kounoungo. A little girl waits for medical examination.
 Refugees getting down from the truck which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
Refugees getting down from the truck which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
 Refugees load their belongings to be transported to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted, until they build their own house. 
Refugees load their belongings to be transported to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted, until they build their own house. 
 People getting down from the truck, which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
People getting down from the truck, which transport them from Birak to Kounoungo camp.
 Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child gets a nutritive beverage.
Upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child gets a nutritive beverage.
 Refugees in the truck which take them to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted as temporaly shelters.
Refugees in the truck which take them to the extension of Kounoungo camp, where tents have been mounted as temporaly shelters.
 Refugees who arrived years ago (the first arrived in 2004) bringing food to the newly arrived refugees from Birak.
Refugees who arrived years ago (the first arrived in 2004) bringing food to the newly arrived refugees from Birak.
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child arm is measured. 
After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child arm is measured. 
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child is measured. 
After the truck trip from Birak, upon his arrival in Kounoungo, during the medical screening of the newly arrived refugees, a child is measured. 
 Getting down from the truck which transfer him from Birak, a young refugee is searched by the chadian police who is looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
Getting down from the truck which transfer him from Birak, a young refugee is searched by the chadian police who is looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
 A traditionnal leader of the Kounoungo camp. 
A traditionnal leader of the Kounoungo camp. 
 Getting down from the truck which transfer her from Birak, a young refugee is search by chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
Getting down from the truck which transfer her from Birak, a young refugee is search by chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. 
 The chadian police is searching for weapon and ammunitions in the belongings of the refugees in the arrival compound of Kounoungo camp. 
The chadian police is searching for weapon and ammunitions in the belongings of the refugees in the arrival compound of Kounoungo camp. 
 Upon her arrival, refugee searched by Chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. "What do you expect to find ?, she asks exhausted. 
Upon her arrival, refugee searched by Chadian police auxiliary, looking for weapons or ammunitions. "What do you expect to find ?, she asks exhausted. 
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees.    
Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees.  
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp, founded in February 2004 marking the places where they will mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
Long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 Long-time arrived refugee in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
Long-time arrived refugee in Kounoungo are cleaning up the area from stones before male refugees mount tents to accommodate new refugees. 
 New refugees from Birak waiting under the shade of a tree, while long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp are mounting tents to accomodate them. 
New refugees from Birak waiting under the shade of a tree, while long-time arrived refugees in Kounoungo camp are mounting tents to accomodate them. 
 Entrance of a tent for health care in the medical center of Kounoungo refugee camp in Chad. 
Entrance of a tent for health care in the medical center of Kounoungo refugee camp in Chad. 
 In Kounoungo Medical Center, a refugee is waiting for her child to be examined by the nurse. 
In Kounoungo Medical Center, a refugee is waiting for her child to be examined by the nurse. 
 An old and blind refugee being pulled by a relative between the tents in Kounoungo camp. 
An old and blind refugee being pulled by a relative between the tents in Kounoungo camp. 
 In the brickfield of Kounoungo, a refugee freshly arrived from Birak makes bricks to build shelter to cook, around his family tent. 
In the brickfield of Kounoungo, a refugee freshly arrived from Birak makes bricks to build shelter to cook, around his family tent. 
 Cemetery of Kounougo refugee Camp. In the background, the extension built with tents to accommodate the new refugees coming from the Jebel Moun. 
Cemetery of Kounougo refugee Camp. In the background, the extension built with tents to accommodate the new refugees coming from the Jebel Moun. 
 Kounoungo Camp. New refugee coming from Birak, mainly composed of women and children, are waiting under the shade of a tree to be called to settle in a tent. 
Kounoungo Camp. New refugee coming from Birak, mainly composed of women and children, are waiting under the shade of a tree to be called to settle in a tent. 
 In the maternity Health Center of Konoungo camp, a long-term refugee after a difficult delivery. Every month up to sixty births occur in the camp. 
In the maternity Health Center of Konoungo camp, a long-term refugee after a difficult delivery. Every month up to sixty births occur in the camp. 
 After the truck trip from Birak, upon her arrival in Kounoungo, an exhausted little girl leaning on her mother. 
After the truck trip from Birak, upon her arrival in Kounoungo, an exhausted little girl leaning on her mother. 
 In the brickfield of Kounoungo, young girls freshly arrived from Birak are playing. 
In the brickfield of Kounoungo, young girls freshly arrived from Birak are playing. 
 An old, blind refugee in her tent in Kounoungo camp. 
An old, blind refugee in her tent in Kounoungo camp. 
 Kounoungo. Refugee brings water to make bricks. This raises issue of water supply because refugees use treated water meant for human consumption. 
Kounoungo. Refugee brings water to make bricks. This raises issue of water supply because refugees use treated water meant for human consumption. 
 Newly arrived refugee in Kounoungo camp, prays before her family tent. She has built a small brick wall to protect the kitchen corner from wind and sand. 
Newly arrived refugee in Kounoungo camp, prays before her family tent. She has built a small brick wall to protect the kitchen corner from wind and sand. 
 Two newly arrived boys run between tents in Kounougo Camp. The tents are used as temporary shelter until the refugees can build sturdier mud brick huts. 
Two newly arrived boys run between tents in Kounougo Camp. The tents are used as temporary shelter until the refugees can build sturdier mud brick huts. 
 Long-time arrived refugees back from wood collection. According to UNHCR, assaults during wood collection are one of the more commun security incidents.    
Long-time arrived refugees back from wood collection. According to UNHCR, assaults during wood collection are one of the more commun security incidents.  
 Kounoungo camp. Newly arrived refugees carrying the kitchen kit given by UNHCR, to their tent. 
Kounoungo camp. Newly arrived refugees carrying the kitchen kit given by UNHCR, to their tent. 
 Brickfield in Kounoungo, a young boy freshly arrived from Birak dig for mud to make bricks that the new refugees use to build shelter to cook, around their tent. 
Brickfield in Kounoungo, a young boy freshly arrived from Birak dig for mud to make bricks that the new refugees use to build shelter to cook, around their tent. 
 Kounoungo. Refugee and friends build a house for his family. The house will replace the tent given years ago which under rain and sun, falls into dust. 
Kounoungo. Refugee and friends build a house for his family. The house will replace the tent given years ago which under rain and sun, falls into dust. 
 Kounougo Camp. Over two months after the latest bombing campaign in Darfur UNHCR has transferred some 5,400 refugees to two camps in eastern Chad. 
Kounougo Camp. Over two months after the latest bombing campaign in Darfur UNHCR has transferred some 5,400 refugees to two camps in eastern Chad. 
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